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5 stages of science

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Authors: Oberron , Rezpe , Rezpe & Oberron , sebas ,

5 stages of science

From stones to emulation

The 5 stages

  1. observation
  2. equation
  3. simulation
  4. modeling
  5. emulation


For millenia, humans observed the world and built artifacts to help predictions of seasons.


Newton's manuscript - Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica

Equations became slowly the way science described the world as a denser way to convey information from brain to brain.


Lorenz attractor, or how impossible predicting weather is

With computers, it became possible to solve differential equations based on boundary conditions and weather forecasting for the following hours became possible.


atomic forces simulation for protein binding

As computer got more powerful, simulation models based on physics first principle like protein folding and binding became possible.


Latent embeddings from our framework colored by physical state variables. Credit: Boyuan Chen/Columbia Engineering

AI trained on dataset, generates implicit models which are much faster at processing than first principal based modelling. For instance a team at Columbia University created an AI network which can make physics prediction but thoes are not using energy or mass or any usual concepts from classical physics